The Ruesch Clinic makes available to its patients high profile medical teams that have chosen Naples as the reference scientific center for ophthalmic surgery.
Oculistic or refractive surgery is an eye surgery used by the ophthalmologist to correct the refractive defects of the eye due to the inability to focus on images from the retina, typically intervening for example on the cornea or on the lens (sometimes replacing it).
How does eye surgery work?
Among the defects treated by eye surgery, we mainly see the correction of myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism; to these must be added presbyopia, which takes over at a later age. The magnitude of these pathologies is expressed in dioptres and, only in the case of astigmatism, also by an axis whose expression is in degrees that indicates its orientation.
All refractive defects can be corrected by using different types of interventions: the primary classification can be seen between corneal and intraocular surgery.
The defects detected can be corrected daily even with the use of glasses or contact lenses. Surgery in these cases is generally recommended when glasses or contact lenses prescribed by the eye doctor are not well tolerated by patients. This occurs, for example, in strong or even very unbalanced defects between one eye, and another in cases of intolerance of the contact lenses, work activities where the use of lenses is an obstacle for the worker (for example, this occurs in aviation). However, these interventions are required simply for the possibility of being able to get rid of the aids in everyday life, finding and in cases where the glasses or contact lenses are uncomfortable or unsightly.
In any case, the value of the defect must be measured by an ophthalmologist, who must obtain a series of assessments on the patient’s state of health before any surgical intervention.
Refractive surgery is generally definitive and requires, even if not invasive, a brief period of adjustment that varies according to the technique used. In addition, there is not always a guarantee of obtaining a perfect vision (10/10) but nevertheless the visual ability always improves. However, in the most serious cases, it could just remain a small residual of refractive defect, but it can be corrected thanks to a minor intervention.
How to correct a refraction defect?
The refractive power of the eye is possessed by about 60% of the cornea (40 dioptres): the ability to be able to vary the direction of the light rays making them converge on the retina is due precisely to the curvature of the latter. Refractive surgery is performed with the laser, varying on the corneal thickness, causing images to be focused on the retina. So We can say that to correct myopia we must flatten the cornea, while for the astigmatism we have to do exactly the inverse, we exponentially increase the curvature.
The choice, however, is up to the ophthalmologist who intends to perform the operation. To date, however, the most used technique is generally the lasik in the treatment of mild and moderate myopias, while the PRK and the lasek are more generally chosen in case of high myopias.
Refractive surgery tends to eliminate the visual defect by reshaping the cornea and thus giving it the desired shape for correction. One of the contraindications that we can find therefore in wanting to correct this intervention is given by the presence of a too thin cornea. However, the cornea thickness can be measured by a corneal pachymetry.
Another contraindication can be given by ocular dryness: through appropriate tests to check the degree of tearing we can understand how and if to intervene with refractive surgery, excluding people who suffer from the so-called dry eye. Particular attention must then be placed if you are suffering from keratoconus.
However, myopia can be treated successfully up to 12 dioptres, beyond which serious risks to the health of the eye can arise. The same applies to the forms of hypermetropia above 5 or 6 dioptres, for which the treatment is not very effective.
Before and after refractive surgery: what to do
Before the operation, it is necessary to suspend the use of contact lenses for as long as possible, because it will not be possible to operate on the eye before two weeks from the suspension of the use of the latter. This is because the contact lens can lead to deformation of the cornea which can lead to problems during the operation. The days prior to surgery you should not go into environments that favor ocular infections, even simply conjunctivitis. In fact, everything could jeopardize the result, so we strongly advise against avoiding contact with people suffering from keratitis or conjunctivitis.
The period following the operation to the eye is the most delicate: any infection could also affect the desired result and lead to more serious consequences. Therefore, the use of motorbikes or bicycles as well as other outdoor activities, places with a lot of wind or a lot of smoke must be avoided for a certain time. It is stressed to not go to the pool because of the chlorine which can irritate the eyes. In addition, it is always essential in the post-operative period to properly hydrate the eye. For this purpose it is therefore essential to periodically use artificial tears. Despite these measures, it is still possible, for example, to read, write or use the computer without problems.
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