The Ruesch Clinic involves professionals of different medical backgrounds in this area of the clinic. 

General Information

Endocrinology is the field of hormone-related diseases. An endocrinologist can diagnose and treat hormonal problems and the complications arising therefrom. Hormones regulate metabolism, respiration, growth, reproduction, sensory perception and movement. Hormonal imbalances are the underlying reason for a wide range of medical conditions. 

Endocrinology focuses on both the hormones and the many glands and tissues that produce them.

Humans have over 50 different hormones. They can exist in very small quantities and still have a significant impact on the function and development of the body.


Key points of Endocrinologia

Here are some key points about Endocrinologia 

  • Endocrinology involves a wide range of systems within the human body.
  • Endocrine tissues include the adrenal gland, the hypothalamus, the ovaries and the testicles.
  • There are three broad groups of endocrine disorders. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrine disease in women.

What is the endocrine system?

The human endocrine system is made up of a number of glands that release hormones to control many different functions.

When hormones leave the glands, they enter the bloodstream and are transported to the organs and tissues throughout the body.

Adrenal glands

The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. They are divided into two regions, the right gland is triangular and the left is crescent-shaped.

The adrenal glands secrete:

  • corticosteroids, steroids involved in stress responses, the immune system, inflammation and more
  • catecholamines, norepinephrine and adrenalin in response to stress
  • aldosterone, which affects renal function
  • androgens, male sec hormones, including testosterone

Both men and women have androgenic hormones, but men present them in higher levels. Androgens control the development of characteristics associated with males, such as facial hair and a deeper voice.


The hypothalamus is located just above the brainstem and below the thalamus.

This gland activates and controls the involuntary functions of the body, including breathing, heart rate, appetite, sleep, temperature, circadian cycles or daily rhythms.

The hypothalamus connects the nervous system to the endocrine system via the attached pituitary gland.

Ovaries and testicles

The ovaries are found on both sides of the uterus in females. They secrete estrogen and progesterone hormones.

These hormones promote sexual development, fertility and menstruation.

The testicles are found in the scrotum, under the penis in males. They secrete androgens, mainly testosterone.

Androgens control sexual development, puberty, facial hair, sexual behavior, libido, erectile function and sperm cell formation.


Located in the abdomen, the pancreas is both an endocrine gland and a digestive organ.

Release substances such as:

  • Insulin: important for the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats in the body
  • Somatostatin: regulates the function of the endocrine and nervous system and controls the secretion of various hormones, such as gastrin, insulin and growth hormone
  • Glucagon: a peptide hormone that increases blood glucose levels when they fall too low
  • Pancreatic polypeptide: this helps to control the secretion of substances produced by the pancreas

Both diabetes and digestive problems can occur if there are problems with the pancreas.

Parathyroid glands

These small endocrine glands located in the neck produce the parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium and phosphate in the blood.

Muscles and nerves can function safely and effectively only if these chemicals are at the correct levels.

Pineal body or pineal gland

This is a small endocrine gland located deep in the brain. Melatonin follows and helps control body sleep patterns and moderate levels of reproductive hormones.

Pituitary glands

An endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus at the base of the brain.

It is sometimes considered the main endocrine gland because it secretes hormones that regulate the functions of other glands, as well as growth and many other bodily functions.

The anterior pituitary secretes hormones that influence sexual development, thyroid function, growth, skin pigmentation and adrenal function.

If the anterior pituitary is insufficient, it can lead to stunted growth in infancy and hyperactivity in other endocrine glands.

The posterior or posterior pituitary gland acts as an oxytocin, a hormone that increases the contractions of the uterus and the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which encourages the kidneys to reabsorb water.


The thymus is an endocrine gland located below the sternum or in the sternum.

T lymphocytes, a type of immune cell, mature and multiply in the thymus gland in the first years of life. After puberty, the gland narrows.

The thymus gland plays a role in the immune system, which protects the body from disease and infection.

Thyroid gland

A butterfly-shaped gland located just below the Adam’s apple in the neck, the thyroid produces hormones that play a key role in regulating blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, metabolism and how the body reacts to other hormones.

The thyroid gland uses iodine to create hormones.

The two main hormones it produces are thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

It also produces calcitonin, which helps strengthen bones and regulate calcium metabolism.

What is an endocrinologist?

If your doctor suspects that the underlying cause of a medical condition is related to hormone production, you could refer to an endocrinologist, a doctor who specializes in endocrinology.

These doctors are trained to diagnose and manage diseases that affect the glands and hormones.

An endocrinologist aims to restore hormonal balance within the body’s systems.

Endocrinologists commonly deal with the following conditions:

  • diabetes
  • osteoporosis
  • menopause
  • metabolic disorders
  • thyroid disease
  • excessive or insufficient production of hormones
  • some cancers
  • short
  • infertility

It is prevalent that hormones affect functions throughout the body. An imbalance of these can cause a wide range of health problems.

A family doctor can refer a patient to an endocrinologist if he suspects that a hormonal problem is the underlying cause of a health problem.

Endocrinology Naples

The best medical specialists in Naples belong to the Ruesch Clinic, forming a pool of top-level professionals capable of satisfying every health need for all our Neapolitan patients or those from other regions of Italy.


Alta tecnologia e strumentazioni di grande qualità sono un punto di forza della clinica


Profili medici riconoscibili e sempre disponibili a fornire un consulto professionale


La clinica è situata in una posizione strategia ed è facilmente accessibile ai nostri pazienti

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